Treaty (Act) of Union, 1707

Whereas articles of union were agreed on, the twenty second day of July, in the fifth year of Your Majesty’s reign, by the commissioners nominated on behalf of the Kingdom of England, under Your Majesty’s Great Seal of England, bearing date at Westminster the tenth day of April then last past, in pursuance of an act of Parliament made in England, in the third year of Your Majesty’s reign, and the commissioners nominated on the behalf of the Kingdom of Scotland, under Your Majesty’s Great Seal of Scotland, bearing date the twenty seventh day of February, in the fourth year of Your Majesty’s reign, in pursuance of the fourth act of the third session of the present Parliament of Scotland, to treat of and concerning an union of the said kingdoms: and whereas an act has passed in the Parliament of Scotland at Edinburgh, the sixteenth day of January, in the fifth year of Your Majesty’s reign, wherein it is mentioned, That the Estates of Parliament considering the said articles of union of the two kingdoms had agreed to and approved of the said articles of union with some additions and explanations, and that Your Majesty, with advice and consent of the Estates of Parliament for establishing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government within the Kingdom of Scotland, had passed in the same session of Parliament an act, intituled An act for securing of the Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government, which by the tenor thereof was appointed to be inserted in any act ratifying the treaty, and expressly declared to be a fundamental and essential condition of the said treaty or union in all times coming: the tenor of which articles, as ratified and approved of, with additions and explanations by the said act of parliament of Scotland, follows:

Article I

That the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland shall upon the first day of May, which shall be in the year one thousand seven hundred and seven, and forever after, be united into one Kingdom by the name of Great Britain; and that the ensigns armorial of the said United Kingdom be such as Her Majesty shall appoint, and the crosses of St George and St Andrew be conjoined in such manner as Her Majesty shall think fit, and used in all flags, banners, standards, and ensigns, both at sea and land.

Article II

That the succession of the monarchy to the United Kingdom of Great Britain, and of the dominions thereto belonging, after Her most sacred Majesty, and in default of issue of Her Majesty, be, remain, and continue to the most excellent Princess Sophia, Electoress and Duchess Dowager of Hanover, and the heirs of her body being Protestants, upon whom the Crown of England is settled by an act of Parliament made in England in the twelfth year of the reign of His late Majesty King William the Third, intituled An act for the further limitation of the crown, and better securing the rights and liberties of the subject: and that all papists, and persons marrying papists, shall be excluded from, and forever incapable to inherit, possess or enjoy the Imperial Crown of Great Britain, and the dominions thereto belonging, or any part thereof; and in every such case, the crown and government shall from time to time descend to, and be enjoyed by such person, being a Protestant, as should have inherited and enjoyed the same, in case such papist, or person marrying a papist, was naturally dead, according to the provision for the descent of the Crown of England, made by another act of Parliament in England in the first year of the reign of Their late Majesties King William and Queen Mary, intituled An act declaring the rights and liberties of the subject, and settling the succession to the crown.

Article III

That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament, to be styled the Parliament of Great Britain.

Article IV

That the subjects of the United Kingdom of Great Britain shall, from and after the union, have full freedom and intercourse of trade and navigation to and from any port or place within the said United Kingdom and the dominions and plantations thereunto belonging; and that there be a communication of all other rights, privileges, and advantages, which do or may belong to the subjects of either kingdom, except where it is otherwise expressly agreed in these articles.

Article V

That all ships or vessels belonging to Her Majesty’s subjects of Scotland, at the time of ratifying the treaty of union of the two kingdoms in the Parliament of Scotland, though foreign built, be deemed and pass as ships of the built of Great Britain; the owner, or where there are more owners, one or more of the owners, within twelve months after the first of May next, making oath, That at the time of ratifying the treaty of union in the Parliament of Scotland, the same did, in whole or in part, belong to him or them, or to some other subject or subjects in Scotland, to be particularly named, with the place of their respective abodes; and that the same does then, at the time of the said deposition, wholly belong to him or them; and that no foreigner, directly or indirectly, has any share, part, or interest therein; which oath shall be made before the chief officer or officers of the customs, in the port next to the abode of the said owner or owners; and the said officer or officers shall be empowered to administer the said oath; and the oath being so administered shall be attested by the officer or officers who administered the same; and being registered by the said officer or officers, shall be delivered to the master of the ship for security of her navigation; and a duplicate thereof shall be transmitted by the said officer or officers to the chief officer or officers of the customs in the port of Edinburgh, to be there entered in a register, and from thence to be sent to the port of London, to be there entered in the general register of all trading ships belonging to Great Britain.

Article VI

That all parts of the United Kingdom forever, from and after the union, shall have the same allowances, encouragements, and drawbacks, and be under the same prohibitions, restrictions, and regulations of trade, and liable to the same customs and duties on import and export, settled in England when the union commences, shall, from and after the union, take place, throughout the whole United Kingdom; excepting and reserving the duties upon export and import of such particular commodities, from which any persons, the subjects of either kingdom, are specially liberated and exempted by their private rights, which after the union, are to remain safe and entire to them in all respects, as before the same. And that from and after the union, no Scots cattle carried into England, shall be liable to any other duties, either on the public or private accounts, than those duties to which the cattle of England are or shall be liable within the said kingdom. And seeing by the laws of England there are rewards granted upon the exportation of certain kinds of grain, wherein oats grinded or ungrinded are not expressed, that from and after the union, when oats shall be sold at fifteen shillings sterling per quarter or under, there shall be paid two shillings and six pence sterling for every quarter of the oatmeal exported in the terms of the law, whereby and so long as rewards are granted for exportation of other grains, and that the bear of Scotland have the same rewards as barley: and in respect the importation of victuals into Scotland from any place beyond sea would prove a discouragement to tillage, therefore that the prohibition as now in force by the law of Scotland against importation of victuals from Ireland or any other place beyond sea into Scotland do after the union remain in the same force as now it is, until more proper and effectual ways be provided by the Parliament of Great Britain for discouraging the importation of the said victuals from beyond sea.

Article VII

That all parts of the United Kingdom be forever from and after the union liable to the same excises upon all excisable liquors, excepting only that the thirty four gallons of English barrel of beer or ale, amounting to twelve gallons Scots present measure sold in Scotland by the brewer at nine shillings six pence sterling excluding all duties, and retailed including duties and the retailers profit at two pence the Scots pint or eighth part of the Scots gallon, be not after the union liable on account of the present excise upon excisable liquors in England to any higher imposition than two shillings sterling upon the aforesaid thirty four gallons English barrel, being twelve gallons the present Scots measure: and that the excise settled in England on all other liquors when the union commences take place throughout the whole United Kingdom.

Article VIII

That from and after the union, all foreign salt which shall be imported into Scotland, shall be charged at the importation there, with the same duties as the like salt is now charged with being imported into England, and to be levied and secured in the same manner: but in regard the duties of great quantities of foreign salt imported may be very heavy upon the merchants importers, that therefore all foreign salt imported into Scotland shall be cellared and locked up under the custody of the merchant importers, and the officers employed for levying the duties upon salt, and that the merchant may have what quantity thereof his occasion may require, not under a wey or forty bushels at a time, giving security for the duty of what quantity he receives payable in six months. But Scotland shall for the space of seven years from the said union be exempted from paying in Scotland for salt made there the duty or excise now payable for salt made in England; but from the expiration of the said seven years shall be subject and liable to the same duties for salt made in Scotland as shall be then payable for salt made in England, to be levied and secured in the same manner and with proportionable drawbacks and allowances as in England, with this exception, that Scotland shall after the said seven years remain exempted from the duty of two shillings four pence a bushel on home salt imposed by an act made in England in the ninth and tenth of King William the Third of England; and if the Parliament of Great Britain shall, at or before the expiring of the said seven years, substitute any other fund in place of the said two shillings four pence of excise on the bushel of home salt, Scotland shall after the said seven years bear a proportion of the said fund and have an equivalent in the terms of this treaty; and that during the said seven years they shall be paid in England for all salt made in Scotland and imported from thence into England, the same duties upon the importation as shall be payable for salt made in England to be levied and secured in the same manner as the duties on foreign salt are to be levied and secured in England; and that after the said seven years as long as the said duty of two shillings four pence a bushel upon salt is continued in England, the said two shillings and four pence a bushel shall be payable for all salt made in Scotland and imported into England to be levied and secured in the same manner; and that during the continuance of the duty of two shillings four pence a bushel upon salt made in England, no salt whatsoever be brought from Scotland to England by land in any manner, under the penalty of forfeiting the salt and the cattle and carriages made use of in bringing the same, and paying twenty shillings for every bushel of such salt and proportionably for a greater or lesser quantity for which the carrier as well as the owner shall be liable jointly and severally, and the persons bringing or carrying the same to be imprisoned by any one justice of the peace by the space of six months without bail and until the penalty be paid. And for establishing an equality in trade that the flesh exported from Scotland to England and put on board in Scotland to be exported to parts beyond the seas, and provisions for ships in Scotland and for foreign voyages, may be salted with Scots salt paying the same duty for what salt is so employed as the like quantity of such salt pays in England, and under the same penalties, forfeitures, and provisions for preventing of frauds as are mentioned in the laws of England; and that from and after the union, the laws and acts of Parliament in Scotland, for pining, curing, and packing of herrings, white fish and salmon for exportation with foreign salt only, without any mixture of British or Irish salt, and for preventing of frauds in curing and packing of fish, be continued in force in Scotland, subject to such alterations as shall be made by the Parliament of Great Britain; and that all fish exported from Scotland to parts beyond the seas which shall be cured with foreign salt only and without mixture of British or Irish salt shall have the same eases, premiums, and drawbacks as are or shall be allowed to such persons as export the like fish from England; and that for encouragement of the herring fishing, there shall be allowed and paid to the subjects, inhabitants of Great Britain, during the present allowances for other fish, ten shillings five pence sterling for every barrel of white herrings which shall be exported from Scotland; and that there shall be allowed five shilling sterling for every barrel of beef or pork salted with foreign salt, without mixture of British or Irish salt, and exported for sale from Scotland to parts beyond sea, alterable by the Parliament of Great Britain; and if any matters of fraud relating to the said duties on salt shall hereafter appear, which are not sufficiently provided against by this article, the same shall be subject to such further provisions as shall be thought fit by the Parliament of Great Britain.

Article IX

That whensoever the sum of one million nine hundred ninety seven thousand seven hundred and sixty three pounds, eight shillings, and four pence halfpenny shall be enacted by the Parliament of Great Britain to be raised in that part of the United Kingdom now called England, on land and other things usually charged in acts of Parliament there for granting an aid to the Crown by a land tax, that part of the United Kingdom now called Scotland shall be charged by the same act with a further sum of forty eight thousand pounds free of all charges as the quota of Scotland to such tax, and so proportionably for any greater or lesser sum raised in England by any tax on land and other things usually charged together with the land; and that such quota for Scotland in the cases aforesaid be raised and collected in the same manner as the cess now is in Scotland; but subject to such regulations in the manner of collecting as shall be made by the Parliament of Great Britain.

Article X

That during the continuance of the respective duties on stamped paper, vellum and parchment by the several acts now in force in England, Scotland shall not be charged with the same respective duties.

Article XI

That during the continuance of the duties payable in England on windows and lights, which determine on the first day of August, 1710, Scotland shall not be charged with the same duties.

Article XII

That during the continuance of the duties payable in England on coals, culm and cinders, which determine the thirtieth day of September, 1710, Scotland shall not be charged therewith for coals, culm and cinders consumed there, but shall be charged with the same duties as in England for all coals, culm and cinders not consumed in Scotland.

Article XIII

That during the continuance of the duty payable in England upon malt, which determines the twenty-fourth day of June, 1707, Scotland shall not be charged with that duty.

Article XIV

That the kingdom of Scotland be not charged with any other duties laid on by the Parliament of England before the union except these consented to in this treaty, in regard it is agreed that all necessary provision shall be made by the Parliament of Scotland for the public charge and service of that kingdom for the year 1707; provided nevertheless that if the Parliament of England shall think fit to lay any further impositions by way of customs, or such excises with which by virtue of this treaty Scotland is to be charged equally with England, in such case Scotland shall be liable to the same customs and excises, and have an equivalent to be settled by the Parliament of Great Britain; with this further provision, that any malt to be made and consumed in that part of the United Kingdom now called Scotland shall not be charged with any imposition on male during this present war. . . .

Article XV

That whereas by the terms of this treaty the subjects of Scotland, for preserving an equality of trade throughout the United Kingdom, will be liable to several customs and excises now payable in England which will be applicable towards payment of the debts of England contracted before the union, it is agreed that Scotland shall have an equivalent for what the subjects thereof shall be so charged towards payment of the said debts of England, in all particulars whatsoever in manner following, viz., that before the union of the said kingdoms the sum of £398,085, 10 shillings be granted to Her Majesty by the Parliament of England for the uses aftermentioned, being the equivalent to be answered to Scotland for such parts of the said customs and excises upon all excisable liquors with which that kingdom is to be charged upon the union as will be applicable to the payment of the said debts of England, according to the proportions which the present customs in Scotland, being £30,000 per annum, do bear to the customs in England, computed at £1,341,559 per annum, and which the present excises on excisable liquors in Scotland, being £33,500 per annum, do bear to the excises on excisable liquors in England, computed at £947,602 per annum, which sum of £398,085, 10 shillings shall be due and payable from the time of the union. And in regard that after the union, Scotland becoming liable to the same customs and duties payable on import and export and to the same excises on all excisable liquors as in England, as well upon that accompt as upon the accompt of the increase of trade and people (which will be the happy consequence of the union) the said revenues will much improve beyond the before-mentioned annual values thereof, of which no present estimate can be made, yet nevertheless for the reasons aforesaid there ought to be a proportionable equivalent answered to Scotland, it is agreed that after the union there shall be an accompt kept of the said duties arising in Scotland, to the end it may appear what ought to be answered in Scotland as an equivalent for such proportion of the said increase as shall be applicable to the payment of the debts of England. And for the further and more effectual answering the several ends hereafter mentioned, it is agreed that from and after the union the whole increase of the revenues of customs and duties on import and export and excises upon excisable liquors in Scotland over and above the annual produce of the said respective duties as above stated shall go and be applied for the term of seven years to the uses hereafter mentioned, and that upon the said accompt there shall be answered to Scotland annually from the end of seven years after the union an equivalent in proportion to such part of the said increase as shall be applicable to the debts of England, and generally that an equivalent shall be answered to Scotland for such parts of the English duties as Scotland may hereafter become liable to pay by reason of the union, other that such for which appropriations have been made by Parliament in England of the customs or other duties on export and import, excises on all excisable liquors, in respect of which debts equivalents are herein before provided. And as for the uses to which the said sum of £398,085, ten shillings to be granted as aforesaid, are to be applied, it is agreed that in the first place out of the aforesaid sum what consideration shall be found necessary to be had for any losses which private persons may sustain by reducing the coin of Scotland to the standard and value of the coin of England may be made good; in the next place that the capital stock or fund of the African and Indian Company of Scotland advanced, together with interest for the said capital stock after the rate of five per cent per annum, from the respective times of the payment thereof, shall be paid, upon payment of which capital stock and interest it is agreed the said Company be dissolved and cease; . . . and as to the overplus of the said sum of £398,085, ten shillings, . . . and also the whole increase of the said revenues of customs, duties and excises above the present value which shall arise in Scotland during the said term of seven years, together with the equivalent which shall become due upon the improvement thereof in Scotland, after the said term, and also as to all other sums which according to the agreements aforesaid may become payable to Scotland by way of equivalent for what that kingdom shall hereafter become liable towards payment of the debts of England, it is agreed that the same be applied in manner following, viz., that all the public debts of the kingdom of Scotland as shall be adjusted by this present Parliament shall be paid, and that £2,000 per annum for the space of seven years shall be applied towards encouraging and prowoolng the manufacture of coarse woll within those shires which produce the wool, and that the first £2,000 sterling be paid at Martinmas next, and so yearly at Martinmas during the space aforesaid, and afterwards the same shall be wholly applied towards the encouraging and promoting the fisheries, and such other manufactures and improvements in Scotland as may most conduce to the general good of the United Kingdom; and it is agreed that Her Majesty be empowered to appoint commissioners who shall be accomptable to the Parliament of Great Britain for disposing the said sum of £398,085, ten shillings, and all other moneys which shall arise to Scotland upon the agreements aforesaid, to the purposes before mentioned. . . .

Article XVI

That from and after the union, the coin shall be of the same standard and value throughout the United Kingdom as now in England, and a mint shall be continued in Scotland under the same rules as the mint in England, and the present officers of the mint continued, subject to such regulations and alterations as Her Majesty, her heirs or successors, or the Parliament of Great Britain shall think fit.

Article XVII

That from and after the union, the same weights and measures shall be used throughout the United Kingdom as are now established in England, and standards of weights and measures shall be kept by those burghs in Scotland to whom the keeping the standards of weights and measures now in use there does of special right belong: all which standards shall be sent down to such respective burghs from the standards kept in the Exchequer at Westminster, subject nevertheless to such regulations as the Parliament of Great Britain shall think fit.

Article XVIII

That the laws concerning regulation of trade, customs, and such excises which Scotland is by virtue of this treaty to be liable be the same in Scotland from and after the union as in England; and that all other laws in use within the Kingdom of Scotland do after the union, and notwithstanding thereof, remain in the same force as before (except such as are contrary to or inconsistent with this treaty), but alterable by the Parliament of Great Britain; with this difference between the laws concerning public right, policy, and civil government, and those which concern private right, that the laws which concern public right, policy, and civil government may be made the same throughout the whole United Kingdom; but that no alteration be made in laws which concern private right except for evident utility of the subjects within Scotland.

Article XIX

That the Court of Session or College of Justice do after the union and notwithstanding thereof remain in all time coming within Scotland as it is now constituted by the laws of that kingdom, and with the same authority and privileges as before the union, subject nevertheless to such regulations for the better administration of justice as shall be made by the Parliament of Great Britain, and that hereafter none shall be named by Her Majesty or her royal successors to be ordinary Lords of Session but such who have served in the College of Justice as advocates or principal Clerks of Session for the space of five years, or as writers to the signet for the space of ten years, with this provision, that no writer to the signet be capable to be admitted a Lord of the Session unless he undergo a private and public trial on the civil law before the faculty of advocates and be found by them qualified for the said office two years before he be named to be a Lord of the Session, yet so as the qualifications made or to be made for capacitating persons to be named ordinary Lords of Session may be altered by the Parliament of Great Britain. And that the Court of Justiciary do also after the union and notwithstanding thereof remain in all time coming within Scotland as it is now constituted by the laws of that kingdom, and with the same authority and privileges as before the union, subject nevertheless to such regulations as shall be made by the Parliament of Great Britain and without prejudice of other rights of justiciary. And that all Admiralty jurisdictions be under the Lord High Admiral or Commissioners for the Admiralty of Great Britain for the time being; and that the Court of Admiralty now established in Scotland be continued, and that all reviews, reductions or suspensions of the sentences in maritime cases competent to the jurisdiction of that court remain in the same manner after the union as now in Scotland, until the Parliament of Great Britain shall make such regulations and alterations as shall be judged expedient for the whole United Kingdom, so as there be always continued in Scotland a Court of Admiralty such as in England for determination of all maritime cases relating to private rights in Scotland competent to the jurisdiction of the Admiralty Court, subject nevertheless to such regulations and alterations as shall be thought proper to be made by the Parliament of Great Britain. And that the heritable rights of Admiralty and Vice-Admiralites in Scotland be reserved to the respective proprietors as rights of property, subject nevertheless as to the manner of exercising such heritable rights to such regulations and alterations as shall be thought proper to be made by the Parliament of Great Britain. And that all other courts now in being within the kingdom of Scotland do remain, but subject to alterations by the Parliament of Great Britain; and that all inferior courts within the said limits do remain subordinate as they are now to the supreme courts of justice within the same in all time coming. And that no causes in Scotland be cognoscible by the Courts of Chancery, Queen’s Bench, Common Pleas or any other court in Westminster Hall; and that the said courts or any other of the like nature after the union shall have no power to cognosce, review or alter the acts or sentences of the judicatures within Scotland, or stop the execution of the same. And that there be a Court of Exchequer in Scotland after the union for deciding questions concerning the revenues of customs and excises there, having the same power and authority in such cases as the Court of Exchequer has in England; and that the said Court of Exchequer have power of passing signatures, gifts, tutories, and in other things as the Court of Exchequer at present in Scotland has; and that the Court ofExchequerr that now is in Scotland do remain until a new Court of Exchequer be settled by the Parliament of Great Britain in Scotland after the union. And that after the union the Queen’s Majesty and her royal successors may continue a Privy Council in Scotland for preserving of public peace and order until the Parliament of Great Britain shall think fit toalterr it or establish any other effectual method for that end.

Article XX

That all heritable offices, superiorities, heritable jurisdictions, offices for life and jurisdictions for life be reserved to the owners thereof as rights of property, in the same manner as they are now enjoyed by the laws of Scotland, notwithstanding this treaty.

Article XXI

That the rights and privileges of the royal burghs in Scotland as they now are do remain entire after the union and notwithstanding thereof.

Article XXII

That by virtue of this treaty, of the peers of Scotland at the time of the union sixteen shall be the number to sit and vote in the House of Lords, and forty five the number of the representatives of Scotland in the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain; and that when Her Majesty, her heirs or successors shall declare her or their pleasure for holding the first or any subsequent Parliament of Great Britain, until the Parliament of Great Britain shall make further provisions therein, a writ do issue under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, directed to the Privy Council of Scotland, commanding them to cause sixteen peers who are to sit in the House of Lords to be summoned to Parliament, and forty five members to be elected to sit in the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain, according to the agreement of this treaty, in such manner as by an act of this present session of the Parliament of Scotland is or shall be settled; which act is hereby declared to be as valid as if it were a part of and engrossed in this treaty. And that the names of the persons so summoned and elected shall be returned by the Privy Council of Scotland into the court from whence the said writ did issue. And that if Her Majesty, on or before the first day of May next, on which day the union is to take place, shall declare under the Great Seal of England, That it is expedient that the Lords of Parliament of England and Commons of the present Parliament of England should be the members of the respective houses of the first Parliament of Great Britain for and on the part of England, then the said Lords of Parliament of England and Commons of the present Parliament of England shall be the members of the respective houses of the first Parliament of Great Britain for and on the part of England: and Her Majesty may be her royal proclamation, under the Great Seal of Great Britain, appoint the said first Parliament of Great Britain to meet at such time and place as Her Majesty shall think fit; which time shall not be less than fifty days after the date of such proclamation; and the time and place of the meeting of such Parliament being so appointed, a writ shall be immediately issued under the Great Seal of Great Britain, directed tot he Privy Council of Scotland for the summoning the sixteen peers and for electing forty five members by whom Scotland is to be represented in the Parliament of Great Britain. And the Lords of Parliament of England and the sixteen peers of Scotland, such sixteen peers being summoned and returned in the manner agreed in this treaty, and the members of the House of Commons of the said Parliament of England and the forty five members for Scotland, such forty five members being elected and returned in the manner agreed in this treaty, shall assemble and meet respectively in the respective houses of the Parliament of Great Britain at such time and place as shall be so appointed by Her Majesty, and shall be the two houses of the first Parliament of Great Britain; and that Parliament may continue for such time only, as the present Parliament of England might have continued if the union of the two kingdoms had not been made unless sooner dissolved by Her Majesty. And that every one of the Lords of Parliament of Great Britain and every member of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain in the first and all succeeding Parliaments of Great Britain, until the Parliament of Great Britain shall otherwise direct, shall take the respective oaths appointed to be taken instead of the oaths of allegiance and supremacy by an act of Parliament made in England in the first year of the reign of the late King William and Queen Mary, intituled An act for the abrogating of the oaths of supremacy and allegiance, and appointing other oaths, and make, subscribe, and audibly repeat the declaration mentioned in an act of Parliament made in England in the thirtieth year of the reign of King Charles the Second, intituled An act for the more effectual preserving the King’s person and government, by disabling papists from sitting in either house of Parliament; and shall take and subscribe the oath mentioned in an act of Parliament made in England in the first year of Her Majesty’s reign, intituled An act to declare the alterations in the oath appointed to be taken by the act, intituled An act for the further security of His Majesty’s person, and the succession of the Crown in the Protestant line, and for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and all other pretenders, and their open and secret abettors, and for declaring the association to be determined; at such time, and in such manner as the members of both houses of Parliament of England are by the said respective acts directed to take, make, and subscribe the same, upon the penalties and disabilities in the said respective acts contained. And it is declared and agreed, That these words, This realm, The crown of this realm, and The Queen of this realm, mentioned in the oaths and declaration contained in the aforesaid acts, which were intended to signify the crown and realm of England shall be understood of the crown and realm of Great Britain; and that in that sense the said oaths and declaration be taken and subscribed by the members of both houses of the Parliament of Great Britain.

Article XXIII

That the aforesaid sixteen peers of Scotland mentioned in the last preceding article to sit in the House of Lords of the Parliament of Great Britain shall have all privileges of Parliament which the peers of England now have, and which they, or any peers of Great Britain shall have after the union, and particularly the right of sitting upon the trials of peers, and in case of the trial of any peer, in time of adjournment or prorogation of Parliament, the said sixteen peers shall be summoned in the same manner, and have the same powers and privileges at such trial as any other peers of Great Britain. And that in case any trials of peers shall hereafter happen where there is no Parliament in being, the sixteen peers of Scotland who sat in the last preceding Parliament shall be summoned in the same manner and have the same powers and privileges at such trials as any other peers of Great Britain; and that all peers of Scotland and their successors to their honours and dignities shall from and after the union be peers of Great Britain and have rank and precedence next and immediately after the peers of the like orders and degrees in England at the time of the union, and before all peers of Great Britain of the like orders and degrees who may be created after the union, and shall be tried as peers of Great Britain and shall enjoy all privileges of peers as fully as the peers of England do now, or as they or any other peers of Great Britain may hereafter enjoy the same, except the right and privilege of sitting in the House of Lords and the privileges depending thereon and particularly the right of sitting upon the trials of peers.

Article XXIV

That from and after the union there be one Great Seal for the United Kingdom of Great Britain, which shall be different from the Great Seal now used in either kingdom: and that the quartering the arms and the rank and precedence of the Lyon King of Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland, as may best suit the union, be left to Her Majesty: and that in the mean time, the Great Seal of England be used as the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, and that the Great Seal of the United Kingdom be used for sealing writes to elect and summon the Parliament of Great Britain, and for sealing all treaties with foreign princes and states, and all public acts, instruments and orders of state which concern the whole United Kingdom, and in all other matters relating to England, as the Great Seal of England is now used: and that a seal in Scotland after the union be always kept and made use of in all things relating to private rights or grants, which have usually passed the Great Seal of Scotland, and which only concern offices, grants, commissions, and private rights within that kingdom; and that until such seal shall be appointed by Her Majesty, the present Great Seal of Scotland shall be used for such purposes: and that the privy seal, signet, casset, signet of the justiciary court, quarter seal, and seals of courts now used in Scotland be continued; but that the said seals, and all of them, and the keepers of them, shall be subject to such regulations as the Parliament of Great Britain shall hereafter make. And that the crown, scepter, and sword of state, the records of Parliament, and all other records, rolls and registers whatsoever, both public and private, general and particular, and warrants thereof, continue to be kept as they are within that part of the United Kingdom now called Scotland; and that they shall so remain in all time coming, notwithstanding this union.

Article XXV

That all laws and statutes in either kingdom, so far as they are contrary to, or inconsistent with the terms of these articles, or any of them, shall, from and after the union, cease and become void, and shall be so declared to be, by the respective parliaments of the said kingdoms.

As by the said articles of union, ratified and approved by the said act of Parliament of Scotland, relation being thereunto had, may appear.

II. And the tenor of the aforesaid act for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government within the Kingdom of Scotland, is as follows:

Our sovereign Lady, and the Estates of Parliament, considering that by the late act of Parliament, for a treaty with England for an union of both kingdoms, it is provided, That the commissioners for that treaty should not treat of or concerning any alteration of the worship, discipline, and government of the church of this kingdom as now by law established: which treaty being now reported to the Parliament, and it being reasonable and necessary that the true Protestant religion, as presently professed within this kingdom, with the worship, discipline, and government of this church, should be effectually and unalterably secured: therefore Her Majesty, with advice and consent of the said Estates of Parliament, does hereby establish and confirm the said true Protestant religion, and the worship, discipline, and government of this church, to continue without any alteration to the people of this land in all succeeding generations; and more especially Her Majesty, with advice and consent aforesaid, ratifies, approves, and forever confirms the fifth act of the first Parliament of King William and Queen Mary, intituled Act ratifying the confession of faith, and settling Presbyterian church government; with all other acts of Parliament relating thereto, in prosecution of the declaration of the Estates of this kingdom, containing the claim of right, bearing date the eleventh of April, one thousand six hundred and eighty nine: and Her Majesty, with advice and consent aforesaid, expressly provides and declares, That the aforesaid true Protestant religion, contained in the above mentioned confession of faith, with the form and purity of worship presently in use within this church, and its Presbyterian church government and discipline (that is to say) the government of the church by kirk sessions, presbyteries, provincial synods, and general assemblies, all established by the aforesaid acts of Parliament, pursuant to the claim of right, shall remain and continue unalterable, and that the said Presbyterian government shall be the only government of the church within the Kingdom of Scotland.

And further, for the greater security of the aforesaid Protestant religion, and of the worship, discipline, and government of this church, as above established, Her Majesty, with advice and consent aforesaid, statutes and ordains, That the universities and colleges of Saint Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh, as now established by law, shall continue within this kingdom forever; and that in all time coming, no professors, principals, regents, masters, or others, bearing office in any university, college, or school within this kingdom, be capable to be admitted, or allowed to continue in the exercise of their said functions, but such as shall own and acknowledge the civil government in manner prescribed or to be prescribed by the acts of Parliament; as also, that before, or at their admissions, they do and shall acknowledge and profess, and shall subscribe to the aforesaid confession of faith, as the confession of their faith, and that they will practise and conform themselves to the worship presently in use in this church, and submit themselves to the government and discipline thereof, and never endeavour directly or indirectly the prejudice or subversion of the same, and that before the respective presbyteries of their bounds, by whatsoever gift, presentation or provision they may be thereto provided.

And further, Her Majesty, with advice aforesaid, expressly declares and statutes, That none of the subjects of this kingdom shall be liable to, but all and every one of them forever free of any oath, test or subscription within this kingdom, contrary to, or inconsistent with the aforesaid true Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government, worship, and discipline, as above established; and that the same within the bounds of this church and kingdom, shall never be imposed upon, or required of them, in any sort. And lastly, That after the decease of Her present Majesty (whom God long preserve), the sovereign succeeding to her in the royal government of the Kingdom of Great Britain shall in all time coming at his or her accession to the Crown, swear and subscribe that they shall inviolably maintain and preserve the aforesaid settlement of the true Protestant religion with the government, worship, discipline, right, and privileges of this church, as above established by the laws of this kingdom in prosecution of the claim of right.

And it is hereby statute and ordained, That this act of Parliament, with the establishment therein contained, shall be held and observed in all time coming, as a fundamental and essential condition of any treaty or union to be concluded between the two kingdoms, without any alteration thereof, or derogation thereto in any sort forever: as also, That this act of Parliament, and settlement therein contained, shall be insert and repeated in any act of Parliament that shall pass for agreeing and concluding the aforesaid treaty or union between the two kingdoms; and that the same shall be therein expressly declared to be a fundamental and essential condition of the said treaty or union in all time coming: which articles of union, and act immediately above-written, Her Majesty, with advice and consent aforesaid, statutes, enacts, and ordains to be an continue, in all time coming, the sure and perpetual foundation of a complete and entire union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England, under the express condition and provision, that this approbation and ratification of the aforesaid articles and act shall be no ways binding on this kingdom, until the said articles and act be ratified, approved, and confirmed by Her Majesty, with and by the authority of the Parliament of England, as they are now agreed to, approved and confirmed by Her Majesty, with and by the authority of the Parliament of Scotland; declaring nevertheless, that the Parliament of England may provide for the security of the Church of England as they think expedient, to take place within the bounds of the said Kingdom of England, and not derogating from the security above provided for establishing of the Church of Scotland within the bounds of this kingdom; as also the said Parliament of England may extend the additions and other provisions contained in the articles of union, as above insert, in favours of the subjects of Scotland, to and in favours of the subjects of England; which shall not suspend or derogate from the force and effect of this present ratification, but shall be understood as herein included, without the necessity of any new ratification in Parliament of Scotland.

And lastly, Her Majesty enacts and declares, That all laws and statutes in this kingdom, so far as they are contrary to, or inconsistent with, the terms of these articles, as above-mentioned, shall from and after the union cease and become void.

III. And whereas an act has passed in this present session of Parliament intituled, An act for securing the Church of England as by law established, the tenor whereof follows.

Whereas by an act made in the session of Parliament held in the third and fourth year of Her Majesty’s reign, whereby Her Majesty was empowered to appoint commissioners under the Great Seal of England to treat with commissioners to be authorized by the Parliament of Scotland concerning an union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, it is provided and enacted that the commissioners to be named in pursuance of the said act should not treat of or concerning any alteration of the liturgy, rites, ceremonies, discipline or government of the Church established within this realm, . . . and whereas it is reasonable and necessary that the true Protestant religion professed and established by law in the Church of England and the doctrine, worship, discipline and government thereof should be effectually and unalterably secured, be it enacted . . . that an act made in the thirteenth year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth of famous memory intituled, An act for the ministers of the Church to be of sound religion, and also another act made in the thirteenth year of the reign of the late King Charles II intituled, An act for the uniformity of the public prayers and administration of sacraments and other rites and ceremonies, and for establishing the form of making, ordaining and consecrating bishops, priests and deacons in the Church of England (other that such clauses in the said acts or either of them as have been repealed or altered by any subsequent act or acts of Parliament), and all and singular other acts of Parliament now in force for the establishment and preservation of the Church of England and the doctrine, worship, discipline and government thereof shall remain and be in full force for ever.

And be it further enacted . . . that after the demise of Her Majesty (whom God long preserve) the sovereign next succeeding to Her Majesty in the royal government of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and so for ever hereafter every king or queen succeeding and coming to the royal government of the Kingdom of Great Britain, at his or her coronation shall in the presence of all persons who shall be attending, assisting or otherwise then and there present, take and subscribe an oath to maintain and preserve inviolably the said settlement of the Church of England and the doctrine, worship, discipline and government thereof established within the kingdoms of England and Ireland, the dominion of Wales and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed and the territories thereunto belonging.

And be it further enacted . . . that this act and all and every the matters and things therein contained be and shall for ever be holden and adjudged to be a fundamental and essential part of any treaty of union to be concluded between the said two kingdoms, and also that this act shall be inserted in express terms in any act of Parliament which shall be made for settling and ratifying any such treaty of union, and shall be therein declared to be an essential and fundamental part thereof.

IV. May it therefore please your most excellent Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted, . . . that all and every the said articles of union, as ratified and approved by the said act of Parliament of Scotland as aforesaid and herein before particularly mentioned and inserted, and also the said act of Parliament of Scotland for establishing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian Church government within that kingdom intituled, Act for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian Church government, and every clause, matter and thing in the said articles and act contained shall be, and the said articles and act are hereby, for ever ratified, approved and confirmed.

V. And it is hereby further enacted, . . . that the said act passed in this present session of Parliament intituled, An act for securing the Church of England established, and all and every the matters and things therein contained, and also the said act of Parliament of Scotland intituled, Act for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian Church government, with the establishment in the said act contained, be and shall for ever be held and adjudged to be and observed as fundamental and essential conditions of the said union, and shall in all times coming be taken to be, and are hereby declared to be, essential and fundamental parts of the said articles and union, and the said articles of union so as aforesaid ratified, approved and confirmed by act of Parliament of Scotland and by this present act, and the said act passed in this present session of parliament intituled, An act for securing the Church of England as by law established. and also the said act passed in the Parliament of Scotland intituled, Act for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian Church government, are hereby enacted and ordained to be and continue in all times coming the complete and entire union of the two kingdoms of England and Scotland.

VI. And whereas since the passing the said act in the Parliament of Scotland for ratifying the said articles of union one other act intituled, Act settling the manner of electing the sixteen peers and forty-five members to represent Scotland in the Parliament of Great Britain, has likewise passed in the said Parliament of Scotland at Edinburgh the fifth day of February, 1707, the tenor whereof follows.

Our sovereign lady considering that by the twenty-second article of the treaty of union . . . it is provided that . . . of the peers of Scotland at the time of the union sixteen shall be the number to sit and vote in the House of Lords, and forty-five the number of the representatives of Scotland in the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain, . . . therefore Her Majesty, with advice and consent of the Estates of Parliament, statutes, enacts and ordains that the said sixteen peers who shall have right to sit in the House of Peers in the Parliament of Great Britain on the part of Scotland by virtue of this treaty shall be named by the said peers of Scotland whom they represent, their heirs or successors to their dignities and honours, out of their own number, and that by open election and plurality of voices of the peers present and of the proxies for such as shall be absent, . . . declaring also that such peers as are absent . . . may send to all such meetings lists of the peers whom they judge fittest, validly signed by the said absent peers, which shall be reckoned in the same manner as if the parties had been present and given in the said list; and in case of the death or legal incapacity of any of the said sixteen peers, that the aforesaid peers of Scotland shall nominate another of their own number in place of the said peer or peers in manner before and after mentioned. And that of the said forty-five representatives of Scotland in the House of Commons in the Parliament of Great Britain thirty shall be chosen by the shires of stewartries and fifteen by the royal burghs as follows, viz., one for every shire and stewartry excepting the shires of Bute and Caithness, which shall choose one by turns, Bute having the first decision; the shires of Nairn and Cromarty, which shall also choose by turns, Nairn having the first election; and in like manner the shires of Clackmannan and Kinross shall choose by turns, Clackmannan having the first election. . . . And that the said fifteen representatives for the royal burghs be chosen as follows, viz., that the town of Edinburgh shall have right to elect and send one member to the Parliament of Great Britain, and that each of the other burghs shall elect a commissioner in the same manner as they are now in use to elect commissioners to the Parliament of Scotland, which commissioners and burghs (Edinburgh excepted) being divided in fourteen classes or districts shall meet at such time and burghs within their respective districts as Her Majesty, her heirs or successors shall appoint, and elect one for each district, viz., the burghs of Kirkwall, Wick, Dornoch, Dingwall and Tain, one; the burghs of Fortrose, Inverness, Nairn and Forres, one; the burghs of Elgin, Cullen, Banff, Inverurie and Kintore, one; the burghs of Aberdeen, Inverbervie, Montrose, Aberbrothock and Brechin, one; the burghs of Forfar, Perth, Dundee, Cupar and St. Andrews, one; the burghs of Crail, Kilrenny, Anstruther Easter, Anstruther Wester and Pittenweem, one; the burghs of Dysart, Kirkcaldy, Kinghorn and Burntisland, one; the burghs of Inverkeithing, Dunfermline, Queensferry, Culross and Stirling, one; the burghs of Glasgow, Renfrew, Rutherglen and Dumbarton, one; the burghs of Haddington, Dunbar, North Berwick, Lauder and Jedburgh, one; the burghs of Selkirk, Peebles, Linlithgow and Lanark, one; the burghs of Dumfries, Sanquhar, Annan, Lochmaben and Kirkcudbright, one; the burghs of Wigtown, New Galloway, Stranraer and Whithorn, one; and the burghs of Ayr, Irvine, Rothesay, Campbeltown and Inveraray, one. And it is hereby declared and ordained that where the votes of the commissioners for the said burghs met to choose representatives from their several districts to the Parliament of Great Britain shall be equal, in that case the president of the meeting shall have a casting or decisive vote, and that by and according to his vote as a commissioner from the burgh from which he is sent, the commissioner from the eldest burgh presiding in the first meeting, and the commissioners from the other burghs in their respective districts presiding afterwards by turns in the order as the said burghs are now called in the rolls of the Parliament of Scotland. . . . It is always hereby expressly provided and declared that none shall be capable to elect or be elected for any of the said estates but such as are twenty-one years of age complete and Protestant, excluding all papists or such who being suspect of popery and required refuse to swear and subscribe the formula contained in the third act made in the eighth and ninth sessions of King William’s Parliament intituled, Act for preventing the growth of popery; and also declaring that none shall be capable to elect or be elected to represent a shire or burgh in the Parliament of Great Britain for this part of the United Kingdom except such as are now capable by the laws of this kingdom to elect or be elected as commissioners for shires or burghs to the Parliament of Scotland. . . . And whereas by the said twenty-second article it is agreed that if Her Majesty shall on or before the first day of May next declare that it is expedient the Lords and Commons of the present Parliament of England should be the members of the respective Houses of the first Parliament of Great Britain for and on the part of England, they shall accordingly be the members of the said respective Houses for and on the part of England, Her Majesty, with advice and consent aforesaid, in that case only doth hereby statute and ordain that the sixteen peers and forty-five commissioners for shires and burghs who shall be chosen by the peers, barons and burghs respectively in this present session of Parliament and out of the members thereof, in the same manner as committees of parliament are usually now chosen, shall be the members of the respective Houses of the said first Parliament of Great Britain for and on the part of Scotland. . . .

VII. As by the said act passed in Scotland for settling the manner of electing the sixteen peers and forty-five members to represent Scotland in the Parliament of Great Britain may appear, be it therefore further enacted . . . that the said last-mentioned act passed in Scotland for settling the manner of electing the sixteen peers and forty-five members to represent Scotland in the Parliament of Great Britain as aforesaid shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be, as valid as if the same had been part of and engrossed in the said articles of union, ratified and approved by the said act of Parliament of Scotland and by this act as aforesaid.